Muladhara (Sanskrit: मूलाधार or मूलाधारा, "root of Existence." Mula means root and dhara means flux) or the root chakra is one of the seven primary chakras according to Hindu tantrism. It is symbolized by a lotus with four petals and the colour pink or red.
Muladhara is said to be located near the coccygeal plexus beneath the sacrumit, while its kshetram, or superficial activation point, is located between the perineum and the coccyx or the pelvic bone. Because of its location and connection with the act of excretion, it is associated with the anus. Muladhara is said to be the base from which the three main psychic channels or nadis emerge: the Ida, Pingala and Sushumna. It is also believed that Muladhara is a subtle abode of the Hindu God Ganapati. In the highest revered prayer for Ganapati, the Ganapati Atharvashirsha, it is mentioned that "one who worships Lord Ganapati would easily grasp the concept and realise Brahman".
It is symbolized by a red, four-petaled lotus with a yellow square at its centre. Each petal has one of the Sanskrit syllables वं vaṃ, शं śaṃ, षं ṣaṃ, and सं saṃ written on it in gold, representing the four vrittis: greatest joy, natural pleasure, delight in controlling passion, and blissfulness in concentration. Alternatively, they may represent dharma (psycho-spiritual longing), artha (psychic longing), kama (physical longing) and moksha (longing for spiritual liberation). Eight spears point out of the sides and corners of the square.
The deity Indra is associated with Muladhara. In these depictions, he is yellow, four-armed, and holds a vajra and a blue lotus in his hands.[clarification needed] He is mounted upon the white elephant Airavata, who has seven trunks denoting the seven elements necessary for supporting life. Occasionally, Ganesha is also associated with Muladhara. In these depictions, he has orange skin, wears a yellow dhoti, and a green silk scarf draped around his shoulders. In three hands he holds a laddu, a lotus flower, and a hatchet, and the fourth is raised in the mudra of dispelling fear.